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Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a long lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them both at the same time.[1] LTP is one of the major cellular mechanisms behind learning and memory.[1][2] Memories are formed or “encoded” in the brain by creating LTP.


PDE4 is an enzyme that breaks down cAMP molecules, messenger systems that relay signals in the brain. Inhibition of PDE4 blocks the breakdown of cAMP, thereby increasing levels of cAMP within brain cells. PDE4 inhibitors have been shown to have significant nootropic effects including increased cognition [3], improved long term memory [4], increased wakefulness [5], and neuroprotection.[6] [7]

Artichoke Extract is the safest and most effective PDE4 Inhibitor. There are other herbal supplements that can also perform PDE4 Inhibition but they have all been found to have significant side effects. CILTEP has 900 mg of the highest quality Artichoke Extract in each serving.


An herbal supplement named Forskolin (active compound extracted from the root of the Coleus Forskohlii plant) is the only known supplement to naturally increase cAMP levels. It activates the enzyme adenylyl cyclase which then increases intracellular levels of cAMP. CILTEP features premium Coleus Forskohlii standardized for 20% Forskolin. There are 4 mg of Forskolin in each serving of CILTEP.

Increasing cAMP and inhibiting its degradation (through PDE4 Inhibition) induces Long-Term Potentiation (LTP). The result is a significant overall improvement in cognitive function, especially memory formation and retention of new information.

Summary: PDE4 Inhibition + Increasing cAMP → LTP → Learning and Memory


Research has shown that increased intracellular cAMP increases the rate of dopamine and acetylcholine synthesis.[9, 10] L-Phenylalanine, L-Carnitine, and Vitamin B6 are included in the CILTEP formula to maintain optimal neurotransmitter levels.

L-Phenylalanine and L-Carnitine are amino acids found in some foods that the brain uses to make dopamine [11] and acetylcholine.[12] These natural nutrients synergize perfectly with Artichoke Extract and Forskolin, preventing fatigue and creating long lasting results with a lift in mood.


For an additional boost in drive and focus, moderate doses of natural stimulants stack very well with CILTEP. Certain types of tea and coffee may work but SMART CAFFEINE is ideal for achieving optimal alertness without the nervousness and jitters from regular caffeine sources. Be extremely cautious with stimulants because CILTEP magnifies their effects.

1. Plasticity in the human central nervous system.

2. A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.

3. Selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors: a promising target for cognition enhancement.

4. Rolipram, a type IV-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, facilitates the establishment of long-lasting long-term potentiation and improves memory.

5. Rolipram, an antidepressant that increases the availability of cAMP, transiently enhances wakefulness in rats.

6. Rolipram reduces excitotoxic neuronal damage.

7. Broad spectrum neuroprotection profile of phosphodiesterase inhibitors as related to modulation of cell-cycle elements and caspase-3 activation.

8. Amphetamine modulation of long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex: dose dependency, monoaminergic contributions, and paradoxical rescue in hyperdopaminergic mutant.

9. Sustained phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine 40: a novel mechanism for maintenance of catecholamine synthesis.

10. Forskolin, an inducer of cAMP, up-regulates acetylcholinesterase expression and protects against organophosphate exposure in neuro 2A cells.

11. Effect of vitamin B-6 nutrition on the levels of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, dopa decarboxylase activity, tyrosine, and GABA in the developing rat corpus striatum.

12. Acetyl-L-carnitine: from a biological curiosity to a drug for the peripheral nervous system and beyond.X